The Terrorism and Destruction of Africa by European Slave Trader. “Most studies and textbooks on the slave trade focus on the 18th and 19th centuries, an era when the slave trade became a major activity in black Africa. This approach the historian has always avoided analyzing military and other means deployed by European traders slaves in the 16th and 17th centuries defeated African kings and elites who resisted and put in their place obedient and corrupt leaders.

Thus, this image of Africa selling its children has always been based on ignorance of the particularly brutal means used by Europeans to overthrow rich empires, to exterminate any resistance to the invaders of “Rosa Amelia Plumelle-Uribe”, Traite des Noirs, Traite des Blancs, page 138 -139.

After 4,000 years of the pharaonic period and 1,500 years of the upper empire, the arrival of Portugal in Africa marked the beginning of the end of the glorious history of blacks. Of all the European nations that enslaved the Africans, it was they who initially inflicted the most damage. Sent from the Vatican, they have been destroying African civilizations for two centuries. This period represents a turning point in our history and the serious consequences we are experiencing today, which we are talking about here. The Africans of that time and their kings heroically resisted.

Pope Nicholas V

“In previous letters to King Alfonso, among other things, we have given everything and full power to attack, conquer, defeat, conquer and subdue all (black) Saracens, pagans and other enemies of Christ everywhere, revealing that their kingdom, duchy, principality, domain, all property, personal or real, which is in their possession and property, restrict their people to eternal slavery (…) in order to take them under control and use them by the said kingdom, duchy, land, principality, property and property of these Saracens ( blacks) and non-believing Gentiles ”[1].

With these words, Pope Nicholas confirmed on 8 January 1454 Portugal’s consent to the start of the European slave trade and the destruction of Africa. In 1456, his successor, Pope Calictus III, specified “from all of Guinea forward to India” [1]. Thus, in connection with the alleged evangelistic mission, the Portuguese entered a rich and bourgeois Africa with his missionaries. The Europeans then left a description of the civilizations they were to destroy

About the Congolese Empire (the Angola-Democratic Republic of the Congo-Congo-Gabon) and the East African coast, which was marketed by Australia in the 11th century, German historian Leo Frobenius said: “down to the last detail, powerful rulers, industries Rich. Civilized to the bone marrow! And conditions in the East Coast countries, for example in Mozambique, were very similar. “[2] In East Africa, it was said,” the silver stairs approached the ivory layer “

Mwene Mutapa (Zimbabwe-Mozambique-Botswana-South Africa-Zambia), who traded with China in the 11th century, also stated: “The palace is large, majestic, flanked by towers with four main gates; the interior is enriched with cotton tapestries, enriched with gold and rich and refined furniture (…) It is accessed through four large doors, where the emperor’s guards alternate as guards. The exterior is reinforced by a tower and the interior is divided into several spacious rooms equipped with cotton tapestries, where the vitality of the colors competes with the light of gold (() gold, painted and enameled pulpits and hanging ivory chandeliers. silver chains. The beauty of these luxury apartments. The plates are made of porcelain surrounded by golden branches “[3].

They also said: “In the state of Monomotapa, the kings of the earth have long dresses made of silk cloth; they wear an ivory cloth on the sides (() the common people dress in a cotton cloth and the upper class with Indians embroidered in gold “[4]

As for Mozambique, which was part of Mwena Mutapa, they said: “Two elders visited us. Very sublime, they did not appreciate anything we gave them. One wore a coat with a decorated silk trim and the other an old man made entirely of green By their signals we understood that the young man who had been with them came from a great distance and had already seen large ships like ours “[5].

In the 14th century, the Arab traveler Ibn Battuta said of the city of Kilwa in Tanzania, in the Swahili black civilization, that it was the most beautiful city in the world. The Europeans found out when they got to Africa.

In 1482, the Portuguese entered the Empire of the Congo, which was then ruled by Nzing and Nkuwu. The king was not attentive enough thanks to legendary African hospitality. With firearms that are not owned by Africans, the Portuguese, after the evolution of power after the restoration of blacks and Arabs from Northeast Africa, brutally changed the course of African history.

Destruction of the Congo dia Ntotila (Empire of the Congo)

After Nzing’s death, his son Mpanzu and Kitima, hostile to Europeans and rejecting Christianity, were crowned Mwene Kongom (Emperor of the Congo). The Portuguese caused a revolt by the installation of his brother Nzing Mbemb, transformed under the name of Afonso I. In the fight against this coalition, King Mpanzu was assassinated on the battlefield. Alfonso became Mwene Congo

Afonso, completely overwhelmed by Christianity, sent young citizens, government academics, including his children, to study in Europe. Her son Henrique was ordained a bishop.

The Portuguese gradually expanded their control of the empire until they ruled over kings. His strategy was to put Congo dia Ntotil at a technological disadvantage and into vassal relations with Portugal. They refused to sell the Mwene ships to satisfy his desire to develop international trade. They also took control of their international relations.

His strong presence enabled the beginning of slaves. Alfonso refused to allow the organization of slavery in his country. The king strongly condemned the fact that some of his greedy subordinates had worked with slave traders, including Portuguese missionaries. Some Congolese people cooperated in exchange for religious artifacts. Alfonso did not understand how Christians, whom he considered perfect beings, could participate in the breakthrough.

In various letters from King Joao III of Portugal, when he considered him a brother, King Afonso protested because he was indignant and insisted on the withdrawal of Portuguese consumer goods; just so he gets indifferent answers from Joao. In the face of the finally disobedient king, the Portuguese provoked conspiracies and attacks on members of the government and destroyed the political apparatus of the Empire.

High dignitaries and members of the imperial family were abducted and sent away. Afonso I himself escaped an assassination attempt, which was organized by the 8 Portuguese in the middle of the Easter Mass in 1540; The bullet crossed his royal cloak. At the end of his reign in 1543, Nzinga Mbemba Afonso took me away from Portugal. The emperor died at the age of 87, as Joseph Ki-Zerbo said, without realizing what was happening.

Congo defeated by the slave trade emptied exponentially and in fact went to war against Portugal. After more than a century of resistance, the royal army was definitively defeated in 1665. The great city of Mbanza Congo and its then large and colorful markets were just a living monument to animals where poor and naked people were known.

The head of King Antonio I of Kongo, defeated by the Portuguese at the Battle of Ambuila, captured and beheaded in 1665. The Kongo Empire died with him.

The destruction of the Swahili and Somali Kingdoms

Louise Marie Diop-Maes said: “After the plunder of ships around Zanzibar in 1503, the Portuguese attacked Kilwa in 1505 and began building a fortress. In the same year, the resisting Mombassi threatened. on the streets of the city to the royal palace.After the attack on the palace they forced the king to surrender.The city was looted and burned.Further north of Barawa the same fate befell.In 1528 Mombasa was attacked again.After taking 4 months, the Portuguese overthrew city to land.Mombasa was repopulated in 1569

Vestiges of the Swahili civilization on the coasts of Tanzania and Kenya

As for Kilwa, it was “almost deserted but still trading ivory with the Comoros and the interior.” Except Malindi, all the cities between Mogadishu (Somalia) and Kilwa (Tanzania) had received a Turkish ship and the message from Turkish commander Mir’Ali Bey. The Portuguese responded with a punitive expedition, particularly in Faza near Paté and in Mombasa, whose inhabitants resisted and inflicted heavy losses on the Portuguese before they were crushed. The city was again razed to the ground and the King’s head taken away and exhibited in Goa (India).

In 1588, the Turks returned with 5 vessels and the Portuguese retaliated in 1589 with a more powerful fleet which destroyed all the Turkish boats. In the same time, the Zimba people came from outside to wreak havoc. The Portuguese sailed towards the north and retaliated against the Lamu people as they had supported the Turks.

The neighboring island of Manda was attacked and its capital city, Takwa, was ransacked. Malindi took over Mombasa with the Sejegu people’s help. The Portuguese imposed Prince Malindi to Mombasa. The Portuguese captain and his garrison were transferred from Malindi to Mombasa. Malindi then declined. Kilifi (between Mombasa and Malindi) attacked Malindi. Malindi won over Kilifi which was later defeated. Except Paté, the decline was general.”

The destruction of the Mwene Mutapa Empire (Zimbabwe)

In 1505, the Portuguese built a fort in Solafa (Mozambique). Like in Kongo, the strategy was to enter the Empire through religion. The first missionaries arrived on the banks of the Zambezi around 1560, and after a brief conversion to Christianity, the emperor – who had obviously understood what was at stake – had the missionary Gonzalo da Silveira killed. The Portuguese attacked the hinterland.

Between 1569 and 1573, Africans inflicted 800 deaths on Europeans per 1000 soldiers, then 200 per 400 in 1574. In 1629, Emperor Mamvuru Mutapa was defeated but the Empire continued to resist. The Portuguese took advantage of power disputes to favor Mavhura. He agreed to put his territory under the authority of the Portuguese in exchange for their help in conquering the throne. The Portuguese enslaved Africans in the conquered lands. War and rebellions were widespread and migrations intensified. The Empire was disintegrated and became a bloody battlefield.

The Mutapa Mukombwe succeeded in creating a coalition, defeating the Portuguese in 1680 and 1690. But the harm done to Zimbabwe was irreparable. The legendary Southern African Empire would collapse.

Ruins of the Mwene Mutapa empire

Notes:

 [1] The European slave trade: truth and lie; Jean Philippe Omotunde - page 57.
 [2] Negro Nations and Culture; Cheikh Anta Diop - page 343.
 [3] The European slave trade: truth and lie; Jean Philippe Omotunde - pages 75 & 76.
 [4] Ditto, page 74
 [5] Africa must unite, Kwame Nkrumah - pages 20 & 21.
 [6] Black Africa, soil, demography and history, Louise Marie Diop-Maes - pages 206 & 207.
 Theory of the African Revolution, volume; Jean Pierre Kaya
 Government of Zimbabwe West chester university.Follow us on our Bantu Africans social media pages: Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.

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