Menelik II, the Ethiopian Emperor who defeated Italian Colonizer. The only African nation that has not been colonized is Ethiopia. We are going to enlighten you regarding the man behind this feat

Abeto Menelik – Sahle Maryam was conceived in 1844. He was the child of King Haile Menekot, legislative head of the Ethiopian region of Shewa, who passed on fighting against the Negus (Emperor of Ethiopia) Tewodros II. Caught by Tewodros who brought up him as a child, Menelik fled in 1865 to take up the Shewa governorate.

Menelik II

Menelik attempted twice to expel the new Negus Yohannes VI from the royal seat, however his coalitions with the Egyptians and the French fizzled. During Yohannes’ military crusade in 1875, Menelik at last promised devotion by strolling towards the sovereign, head down and a stone on the rear of the neck, as an indication of accommodation. Yohannes VI recognized him as the legislative head of Shewa.

On account of his considerable armed force, Menelik amplified his realm and forced himself as the replacement when Yohannes died, to the impairment of Megesha, child of the ruler. He was delegated on March 25, 1889 and became Menelik II.

The new official submitted to his position the realms of the domain, overcoming the terrains which were to be under his standard. He established the capital Addis Ababa and asked the pilgrim powers present in the district to remember him as Negus. On May 2, 1889, he marked with the Italians the scandalous arrangement of Wichale (Ethiopian city).

The Italians made him sign two variants of the settlement. One in Amharic that would offer him the chance to utilize Italian discretion to speak with remote nations, the other in Italian that necessary it, putting true the domain under Italian colonization. The Italians saw Menelik as a second rate Negro and accepted he would twist when he would discover the deception. Irate, when he found the trick, the Negus wouldn’t be tainted with 2,000,000 weapons, to the amazement of the Italians. Menelik ventured to contend for legitimizing his capacity close to the Europeans, saying that he is a Christian amidst “agnostic” Africans, yet it didn’t work.

The Europeans in the colonial tradition of division, tried in vain to rise Ras Mangasha, king of the province of Tigray, against Menelik, to remove him. Oreste Baratieri was then commissioned by Rome to subject the empire to colonial power. The Italian governor of Eritrea (then colony), underestimated Menelik II’s army, whom he described as savage. He gathered 20 000 men in the locality of Adwa where he waited in ambush the troops of the Negus.

Oreste Baratieri (1841-1901)
Site of the Battle of Adwa, northern Ethiopia

Initially, Menelik II attacked a battalion of 1,000 Italian soldiers, promising to release them if negotiations on the Treaty of Wichale were opened. With pride wounded by the African leader, the Italians pursued the war. After three months in the Adwa camp, Baratieri, which was recalled by the Italian authorities, was given permission to attack the Menelika II camp. Ethiopians, in the African tradition, say military orders on drums, under the ears of silent Italians, who have no idea how to make music in such circumstances.

March 1, 1896, was a cold and foggy night in the Ethiopian highlands that called the Italians to account. The legendary Adwa War began..

Ethiopian painting of the Battle of Adwa

Destroyed by geological theories, the Barateri brothers were divided into two parts, and Menelik II’s troops attacked destroying them. Using weapons, and despite the difficulties, the Italians took advantage of this and every morning Negus ’intentions retreated. Confused by his commanders, he sent 25,000 people to help, who was hit by verocity

196,000 military troops, including 100,000 rifles and heavy weapons, killed 289 Italian troops, 2,918 European troops and 2,000 African troops associated with the enemy. Many other prisoners were also wounded. 954 Europeans have been reported missing. Ethiopia has just defeated the Italian army. It is a sophisticated range of weapons, also purchased from Russia, that makes this a victory.

Ethiopian painting of the battle of Adwa: The Negus is at the top left, behind his troops. His wife Empress Taytu is on the lower left. Taytu’s advanced position is probably a representation of propaganda. Note that here the Ethiopian soldiers all have guns and are dressed from neck to foot, which is not surprising considering that Ethiopia is a country at high altitude and therefore relatively cold.
You will also notice that African soldiers were on the front line and used as cannon fodder for the Italian army.
Representations of the Battle of Adwa found in Italian sites. As you can see here, the Ethiopians have their bodies uncovered and are armed with spears. We do not know if it is to the advantage of the Italians to say that they lost to soldiers armed with spears.

With the collapse of the enemy army, Menelik brought his happiness with the Treaty of Wichale and convinced the world to see him as the Negus of Ethiopia. He continued to expand the emein by taking lands under the protection of the vice president. A new breed of Americans is addressing the kingdom of Menelik. Although there is a demand for technology, the phone is focused on telephone lines, integrated with electricity, the postal system, educational development and health systems. His most important job was to rebuild the city of Addis Ababa in Djibouti, which gave Ethiopia access to the sea.

Menelik II
The imperial family
Empress Taytu and Menelik II
Lions were domesticated at the Ethiopian court until the reign of Haile Selassie.
Viaduct on the Addis Ababa railway line to Djibouti

Sick, Menelik instituted a ministerial government to replace him in 1907 and named his grandson Iyasu as the successor. As Iyasu was still minor, the power was exercised by Empress Taytu. She was deposed by a coup of the clergy and the government in 1910 and Iyasu took over the power in 1911. The emperor died on December 12, 1913, at the age of 69.

Thanks to this powerful man, Ethiopia is the only African country that has never been colored. Ethiopia, the region of ancient eastern Egypt that gave birth to Egypt, is from this site the oldest republic in the world. Menelik was the greatest figure of the opposition to colonial conquest and one of the greatest Africans in history.

Mausoleum of the Negus Menelik II
Stamp with the image of the Negus Menelik II

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